Calcium carbide

Calcium carbide, a chemical compound with the formula CaC2, is known for its diverse applications in various industries, including manufacturing, agriculture, and the production of iron and steel.


The production of calcium carbide involves a chemical reaction between lime (CaO) and carbon (C) at extremely high temperatures. The process typically takes place in an electric arc furnace. Firstly, a mixture of lime and coke is fed into the furnace. Then, an electric arc is generated between two electrodes, which initiates the reaction. The intense heat from the arc melts the lime and coke, causing the lime to react with carbon to form calcium carbide.

The chemical reaction is as follows:

CaO + 3C → CaC2 + CO

The resulting calcium carbide is a crystalline substance that appears as grayish-black solid chunks. It can be further processed and transformed into various forms, including powder, granules, or pellets, depending on its intended applications.


Acetylene Gas Production: The primary use of calcium carbide is in the production of acetylene gas (C2H2). When calcium carbide reacts with water, it releases acetylene gas. The acetylene gas is utilized in acetylene lamps, welding torches, and cutting equipment, where acetylene serves as a valuable fuel source due to its high heat release.

Chemical Synthesis: Calcium carbide is a crucial raw material for the synthesis of several organic compounds. It can be employed in the production of solvents, plastics, synthetic fibres, and rubber. Additionally, it serves as a starting material for the manufacture of various chemicals, such as calcium cyanamide, which is used as a nitrogen fertilizer.

Steelmaking: Calcium carbide plays a vital role in the steel industry. It is primarily utilized in the desulfurization process during steel production. This reaction removes sulphur impurities, resulting in cleaner and higher-quality steel. Sulphur reduces the ductility, strength, and workability of steel, making it more susceptible to fractures and corrosion.

During the steelmaking process, a small amount of calcium carbide is added to the molten iron. The high temperature causes the calcium carbide to react with sulphur, forming calcium sulphide and carbon monoxide. Calcium sulphide is a low-melting-point compound that easily separates from the molten steel and floats to the surface, where it can be removed as a slag. The reaction can be represented as follows:

CaC2 + 2S → CaS + 2CO

By effectively reducing the sulphur content of steel, calcium carbide helps produce high-quality steel for various applications, including construction, automotive manufacturing, and infrastructure development.

Mineral-Loy supplies Calcium Carbide of various sizes including customised blends. Please contact us for assistance with your Calcium Carbide requirements.

Calcium Carbide

Calcium Carbide

Calcium Carbide (CaC2) consists of about 80-85% CaC2 and appears grey or brown in colour. In steel making, it is used in the desulphurization of pig iron, cast iron and steel, also as a deoxidizer at ladle treatment facilities.

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